Three 2018 publications from our professor-alumni collaborations at the department in "Principles of Environmental Policy: Local, European and Global Perspectives"

June 6, 2019

Community fora as vehicles of change? The Hlanganani Forum and Kruger National Park, South Africa 
AnthonyBrandon P., Mmethi, Helen   
Anthony, Réka [MESP 98/99]

The chapter examines the relationship between the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and rural Tsonga communities located adjacent to its western border. Some of these communities are represented on the Hlanganani Forum, which liaises with the Park and was established in 1994 when South Africa became a new democracy. The historical background of these communities is characterized by a perceived inadequacy of compensation for their loss of access to resources within the KNP and to damage caused by wildlife escaping from the park. These historical conflicts continued to occur through the dynamic economic and political transformations within South Africa since 1994. Post-Apartheid changes have witnessed a transformation in KNP policies, which are now more socially inclusive and seek to integrate its core biodiversity conservation objectives with socio-economic ones, designed to assimilate the park into the broader socio-economic landscape and improve relations with its neighboring communities. We highlight some of the challenges to the process of integrating biodiversity conservation and rural development in the communal areas of South Africa. This objective is part of a more general problem concerning participation in resource management by rural communities living in the neighborhoods of national parks and other protected areas. Although the focus here is on interactions between South Africa's KNP and its neighboring communities, the findings have relevance and resonance beyond Africa as they raise key questions that can be considered in similar contexts.

Impacts of climate change on biodiversity and its implications for protected areas management 
Idrisova, Anastasiya [MESPOM 08/10]  & AnthonyBrandon P. 

Climate change is an unequivocal global phenomenon that has many negative consequences and can become the dominant direct driver for the loss of biodiversity. Its impacts on species and ecosystems have already been observed worldwide and vary from species phenological changes, to shifts in their geographical distribution and to extinction. Species adaptive responses, in turn, pose various challenges for adequate management of protected areas that play a key role in biodiversity conservation, and require review of conservation goals and implementation of adaptation measures. This chapter focuses on Tajikistan, a mountainous country with unique biodiversity, and explores climate change impacts on the biodiversity of one of the most vulnerable reserves rich in biodiversity – Dashtidjum Zakaznik. The current and potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of the zakaznik have been analyzed following the DPSIR approach and based on current knowledge, experts’ assumptions and observations. An analysis of meteorological data from 1961-2008 has confirmed an increase of mean temperatures and anomalies in precipitation. The main factors of climate change impacts, as well as species vulnerability and adaptive responses, have been identified for the main taxa of flora and fauna, with a focus on rare and endangered species, and represented ecosystems. A vulnerability assessment has shown (i) potential population decline for the majority of species important for conservation, (ii) migration of some species northwards outside the zakaznik, (iii) extirpation of some species, and (iv) increases in population sizes for other species, mainly those that are invasive. An assessment of national policies and strategies has identified a number of prerequisites for the implementation of adaptation measures that may mitigate climate change impacts on the biodiversity of Dashtidjum Zakaznik. They include expansion of the protected area, and establishment of buffer zones and migration corridors.

Challenges and opportunities of integrating local knowledge into environmental management 
Loftus, Anne-Claire [MESPOM 07/09] & AnthonyBrandon P. 

A popular Christmas pastime for many 19th century North America hunters was a competition in which the hunter who shot the most birds and small mammals was declared the winner. The Audubon Society turned this tradition on its head and in 1900 organised the first bird census undertaken by laypersons which has come to be known as the Christmas Bird Count. The Christmas Bird Count is one of the earliest examples of an organised effort to gather and make use of local knowledge held by individuals outside of the research community. Such flora and fauna monitoring programmes have increased in popularity, as has academic interest in the value of local knowledge for natural resource management. Growing interest in local knowledge is in many ways linked to increased awareness of the shortcomings of scientific knowledge in explaining and solving environmental problems. There is however a dichotomy between the theoretical benefits of local knowledge use and integration into management and the actual practice linked to local knowledge capture. Indeed, most local knowledge capture takes place as part of “citizen science” projects, where laypersons gather data as part of studies designed, analysed and used by researchers. While such projects have undeniable benefits, not only in terms of data gathering but also in terms of increased environmental awareness on the part of participants, they do not involve local knowledge holders in all parts of the process, from research design to ultimate decision making. The first section of this chapter will clarify some of the many terms and definitions relating to local knowledge and provide an overview of the main options for local knowledge acquisition and analysis, and will also present the parameters of the example outlined in this chapter. Indeed, this chapter will focus on one example of local knowledge – that held by a group of anglers who have fished the Motueka River catchment in New Zealand for many years. The second section will provide the main outcomes of the investigation into the anglers' local knowledge, both in terms of the investigation on trout decline and sedimentation, and in terms of local knowledge use for catchment management. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of integrating local knowledge in natural resource management, and aim to draw lessons from the Motueka River catchment to reach broad conclusions about the integration of local knowledge into environmental management, both at the scale of the Motueka River catchment and more generally for other local knowledge use initiatives.  

AnthonyBrandon P., Mmethi, Helen & Anthony, Réka [MESP 98/99]. 2018. Community fora as vehicles of change? The Hlanganani Forum and Kruger National Park, South Africa. In Principles of Environmental Policy: Local, European and Global Perspectives pp. 279-340. Russia: Pskov State University
Idrisova, Anastasiya [MESPOM 08/10] & AnthonyBrandon P. 2018. Impacts of climate change on biodiversity and its implications for protected areas management. In Principles of Environmental Policy: Local, European and Global Perspectives. pp. 219-262. Pskov, Russia: Pskov State University
Loftus, Anne-Claire [MESPOM 07/09] & AnthonyBrandon P. 2018. Challenges and opportunities of integrating local knowledge into environmental management. In Principles of Environmental Policy: Local, European and Global Perspectives. pp. 155-189. Pskov, Russia: Pskov State University